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  • joly 5:56 am on 10/09/2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship,   

    WEBCAST TODAY: @PrincetonCITP Conference on Internet #Censorship, Interference and Control 

    Today, Friday October 9 2015 the Princeton Center for Information Technology Policy aka CITP will present a Conference on Internet Censorship, Interference, and Control which will examine questions like: What is the current state of internet accessibility, and what technologies and policies can help protect international security and human rights in this area? This conference will explore research by both computer scientists and political scientists into internet censorship, interference, and control. We will consider interdisciplinary perspectives on relevant contemporary questions: What is the state of the art in network measurement, and how can information about social and political conditions better inform future measurements? How should computer scientists measure and study offensive technologies, such as China’s denial of service attacks on Github, and what role should policy play in responding to these security threats? How extensive are national firewalls, internet surveillance, and filter bubbles, and how should citizens and governments respond? Speakers include Wendy Seltzer and Roger Dingledine. The conference will be streamed live via Princeton Media Central

    What: CITP Conference on Internet Censorship, Interference, and Control
    Where: Princeton University, NJ
    When: Friday October 9 2015 9am-3:30pm EDT | 13:00-19:30 UTC
    Agenda: https://citp.princeton.edu/event/conference-on-internet-censorship-interference-and-control/
    Webcast: http://mediacentrallive.princeton.edu/
    Twitter: @PrincetonCITP

  • joly 2:45 am on 04/02/2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , ,   

    #InternetSociety Calls for Restoration of Full Internet Access in #Turkey #censorship #netfreedom 

    Internet Society President and CEO Kathy Brown issued the following statement on March 31 2014.:

    We are deeply concerned with recent reports that the Turkish government is mandating curtailed access to key social media sites for millions of users across Turkey. Recent actions to implement the Turkish government’s requirement include the redirection of network routes so that Turkish citizens are not getting the correct information from the Domain Name System (DNS). They are instead being redirected to other web sites controlled by Turkish service providers. In addition to undermining core technical functions of the Internet’s architecture, such actions also threaten users’ fundamental human right to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas across frontiers.

    Interfering with a country’s routing of Internet traffic not only harms citizens’ ability to communicate and innovate as part of the global Internet platform; it can also lead to a fragmentation of the network at the regional and global levels. Ultimately, the Turkish people and nation are the ones that will suffer, as their voices will be lost across the net.

    The Internet Society believes that the Internet is a global medium that fuels economic and social development, empowers users with limitless access to knowledge, and supports aspirations for freedom. Bob Hinden, Chair of the Internet Society Board of Trustees, added, “We strongly urge the Turkish Government to stop requiring the blocking of access to social media sites and to allow full Internet access to all Turkish citizens immediately. We believe that the opportunity to participate in the global information society should never be taken away from individuals.”The Internet Society hopes that nations around the world will come to understand that blocking citizens’ access to the tools of online communication only serves to fuel discord and is not the way to address the underlying concerns of their citizens. Such measures can only undermine citizens’ trust in their government’s ability to provide an enabling Internet environment for economic and social progress.

  • joly 5:15 am on 11/30/2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , , ,   

    @InternetSociety Statement on Syrian Internet Shutdown #SyriaBlackout #netfreedom 

    Internet SocietyOn behalf of Lynn St. Amour, President and CEO, and the Internet Society Board of Trustees:

    Emerging reports from various organizations and individuals indicate that international Internet connectivity was shut off in Syria today. The Internet is an open, global medium for communication, idea exchange, empowerment, and innovation. Access to the global Internet is a crucial enabler of human rights.

    As with previous actions to block Internet traffic in Egypt and Libya, the effect of cutting off Internet traffic – ceasing the flow of information in and out of the country – is a serious action. It harms not only the citizens of Syria, but also Syria’s economy and society at large. The Internet Society stands with other organizations around the world in calling for Internet access to be restored with all due speed and cooperation so that vital services can continue to function and citizens won’t be further impacted.

    First and foremost, the Internet Society joins with the rest of the world in its utmost concern about the safety and security of the Syrian people. Previous cases where such actions were deliberately taken have proven not only to be harmful, but to be ineffective. The Internet Society hopes that the volatile situation in Syria will come to a peaceful solution and that the citizens of Syria will soon be able to join the rest of the world in having their voices heard online.


  • joly 4:37 pm on 10/31/2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , , , musubi, , p2psip, PPSP, twimight   

    Moving Toward a Censorship-free Internet #netfreedon @ietf @internetsociety 

    An article Moving Toward a Censorship-free Internet by Dr. Johan Pouwelse in the October 2012 IETF Journal follows up on a meeting at IETF84 in Vancouver that discussed various technical solutions to government Internet censorship of the kind seen in the Arab Spring.

    Technologies include:

    • Bluetooth Transfer – offline peer-to-peer.
    • Musubi – distributed crypto-enabled smartphone IM app
    • Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) – even via repeated bluetooth transfers..
    • Twimight – Decentralized microblogging app for Android
    • P2PSIP – peer-to-peer VOIP – an IETF standard, but with dubious security
    • PPSP – peer-to-peer streaming protocol – serverless video streaming
  • joly 5:10 pm on 07/19/2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, circumvention, commotion wireless, , hackfest, , , privacy. censorship   

    VIDEO: Circumvention Tools Hackfest interviews #netfreedom 

    ISOC-NY President David Solomonoff interviewd several of the participants at last week’s Circumvention Tools Hackfest at Columbia Law School. The entire playlist is here. Individual videos are below:
    (More …)

  • joly 4:00 am on 07/11/2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , , ,   

    VIDEO: CENSORSHIP 2020: The Future of Free Speech Online #censorship #netfreedom @isocdc 

    ISOC-DCJun 25 2012: The Internet Society’s DC Chapter event CENSORSHIP 2020: The Future of Free Speech Online – was webcast live on the Internet Society Chapters webcasting channel. The event, hosted by the Communication, Culture and Technology Program of Georgetown University, will take the form of an informal discussion with six people fighting for free speech on the Internet in their country–and around the world – who have been declared the Internet Freedom Fellows 2012. This event is a direct follow- up to “Global Networks, Individual Freedoms” held at the United Nations in Geneva on Jun 20 2012.

    What: CENSORSHIP 2020: The Future of Free Speech Online
    When: Monday June 25 2012 5.30pm-7pm EDT | 1330-1500 UTC
    Where: Georgetown University, Washington DC
    Twitter: @ISOCDC | #censorship | #netfreedom
    *Dlshad Othman (Syria), an activist and IT engineer providing Syrians with digital security tools
    *Pranesh Prakash (India), a blogger and cyberlaw expert who is promoting a free Internet and online freedom of speech.
    *Koundjoro Gabriel Kambou (Burkina Faso), a journalist at Lefaso.net, is promoting human rights, democracy particularly among young people.
    *Sopheap Chak (Cambodia), the Deputy Director of the Cambodian Center for Human Rights (CCHR) and one of Cambodia ’s leading bloggers.
    *Andres Azpurua (Venezuela) has trained 300 youth on using Web 2.0 tools to publicize human rights violations.
    *Emin Milli (Azerbaijan), a writer who is using YouTube, Facebook and Twitter to spread information about human rights violations
    *Ambassador (ret.) Richard Kauzlarich, Deputy Director, Terrorism, Transnational Crime and Corruption Center (TraCCC), George Mason University
    More info: http://bit.ly/censorship2020

  • joly 3:53 pm on 02/09/2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship,   

    Global Censorship Conference – March 2012 @yaleisp #netfreedom #censorship 

    Global Censorship Conference

    The Information Society Project is hosting a conference on Global Censorship at Yale Law School on March 30, 31, and April 1, 2012. We welcome your attendance at this exciting event.

    Censorship has long been a means to silence “harmful speech.” What governments consider to be “harmful” has varied across time and regime. Whether it’s the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts or the more overt uses of force such as in Tiananmen Square, governments have shown time and time again that they are capable of deploying whatever means necessary to eliminate so called “harmful speech.”

    The ubiquity of the Internet has added an additional layer of complexity to issues of government censorship. It is both an unrivaled tool for speech and an incredible tool for monitoring and surveillance. This conference will consider how censorship has changed in a networked world, exploring how networks have altered the practices of both governments and their citizens. Panels will include discussions of how governments can and do censor and how speakers can command technical and legal tools to preserve their ability to speak. The conference will conclude with a discussion of new controversies in censorship, including laws designed to prevent online bullying and intellectual property infringement.

    Panelists include Rebecca MacKinnon, Jack Balkin, Yochai Benkler, and many other wonderful people: http://www.law.yale.edu/intellectuallife/panelists.htm

    CLE and MCLE credit is offered. Registration and conference info are available here: http://www.law.yale.edu/intellectuallife/14889.htm

  • joly 6:09 pm on 12/14/2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , , , , ,   

    @NCUC @ICANN to House – supporting #NetFreedom = rejecting #SOPA ! 

    NCUCTomorrow, December 15, 2011,  the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary will meet to markup and potentially vote in committee on H.R. 3261, the “Stop Online Piracy Act” or SOPA. Today the Non-Commercial Users Constituency (NCUC) of the Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) – of which ISOC-NY is a member – has written a letter to the House Committee expressing its profound concern with the proposed legislation, and the equivalent PROTECT-IP (PIPA) bill in the U.S. Senate, both of which would mandate the blocking and filtering of the Domain Name System (DNS).

    In particular, the NCUC is very concerned with the provisions in both Bills relating to Domain Name System (DNS) filtering. As identified by numerous technical, legal and policy experts:

    • DNS filtering is often proposed as a way to block illegal content consumption by end users. Yet policies to mandate DNS filtering will be ineffective for that purpose and will interfere with cross-border data flows and services undermining innovation and social development across the globe.
    • Filtering DNS or blocking domain names does not remove the illegal content – it simply makes the content harder to find. Those who are determined to download filtered content can easily use a number of widely available, legitimately-proposed tools to circumvent DNS filtering regimes. As a result, DNS filtering encourages the creation of alternative, non-standard DNS systems.
    • DNS filtering and blocking raises human right and freedom of expression concerns, and often curtails international principles regarding the rule of law, due process and justice. Some countries have employed DNS filtering and blocking as a way to restrict access to the global Internet and to curb free speech.
    • The United States has historically advocated for freedom of expression and has been a strong proponent of online Internet freedoms. The United States Government has a significant responsibility to balance its domestic obligations and their potential global impact, especially with respect to Internet policy. Given its commitment to global Internet freedom, it would be detrimental to the global Internet if the United States were to insist on such an approach.

    NCUC explains that the implications of legislation like PIPA and SOPA will be to have a negative impact upon the Internet’s design and can potentially create serious international political and legal problems. It will compromise Internet freedom held dearly by various organizations and institutions, like the OECD, the European Parliament, the Internet Society, and the Council of Europe – all of whom have committed to preserve this freedom and requested the United States to commit as well to preserving this freedom.

    The letter ends with an appeal to the Committee to consider the viewpoints also expressed by a multitude of actors and organizations and not support legislation that undermines the global Internet.

  • joly 4:29 am on 12/13/2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , , , , , ,   

    @InternetSociety Joins Opposition to Stop Online Piracy Act #SOPA #PIPA #netfreedom 

    Policies mandating DNS filtering undermine the open architecture of the Internet and raise human rights and freedom of expression concerns

    [Washington, D.C. and Geneva, Switzerland – 12 December 2011] – The Internet Society Board of Trustees has expressed concern with a number of U.S. legislative proposals that would mandate DNS blocking and filtering by ISPs to protect the interests of copyright holders. While the Internet Society agrees that combating illicit online activity is an important public policy objective, these critical issues must be addressed in ways that do not undermine the viability of the Internet as a platform for innovation across all industries by compromising its global architecture. The Internet Society Board of Trustees does not believe that the Protect-IP Act (PIPA) and Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) are consistent with these basic principles.

    Specifically, the Internet Society is concerned with provisions in both bills regarding Domain Name System (DNS) filtering. DNS filtering is often proposed as a way to block illegal content consumption by end users. Yet policies to mandate DNS filtering will be ineffective for that purpose and will interfere with cross-border data flows and services undermining innovation and social development across the globe.
    (More …)

  • joly 3:00 pm on 12/05/2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , , , , , protectIP,   

    Internet Society statement on DNS Filtering in the US # PIPA #SOPA 

    The Internet Society has noted with concern a number of U.S. legislative proposals that would mandate DNS blocking and filtering by ISPs in order to protect the interests of copyright holders. We agree with proponents of the Protect-IP Act (PIPA) and Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) that combating illegal online activities is a very important public policy objective. However, policies that are enacted to achieve this goal must not undermine the viability of the Internet as a globally reachable platform. After close examination and consultation with the Internet community, we do not believe that the current U.S. legislative proposals are consistent with these basic principles.

    In particular, we are concerned with provisions in both laws regarding DNS filtering. DNS filtering is often proposed as a way to block illegal content consumption by end users. Yet policies to mandate DNS filtering have not proven to be effective – these approaches interfere with cross-border data flows and services undermining innovation and social development across the globe. In addition, DNS blocking raises significant concerns with respect to human rights and freedom of expression and may curtail fundamental international principles of rule of law and due process.

    The United States has an important leadership role when it comes to online Internet freedoms and should show the way when it comes to balancing local responsibilities and global impact, especially with respect to Internet policy.

    In short, the negative impact of DNS filtering far outweighs any short-term, narrow, legal, and commercial benefits. The Internet Society believes that sustained, global collaboration amongst all parties is needed to find ways that protect the global architecture of the Internet while combating illegal online activities. We must all work to support the principles of innovation and freedom of expression upon which the Internet was founded.

    (More …)

  • joly 5:44 pm on 11/16/2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , , , ,   

    House Judiciary Committee holds hearing on HR.3261, opposition mounts #SOPA 

    Today, Wed. November 16 2011 the U.S House of Representatives Judiciary Committee held a hearing on H.R. 3261, the Stop Online Piracy Act, which was introduced October 26, 2011. This hearing, of which no recording is currently available, was controversial – not only because of the provisions of the Act, but also because, with the exception of Google, every invited witness is a vocal proponent.

    Opponents have deemed today American Censorship Day and statements have been issued opposing the bill including letters from corporationsadvocacy groupsmembers of Congress and law professors.

    A petition on the White House site has already surpassed its target of 25k signatures.


  • joly 3:40 am on 07/04/2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , , ,   

    New York Times editorial on Free Speech and the Internet #netfreedom @nytimes 

    New York TimesToday, July 4, Independence Day in the USA the New York Times has chosen to speak out on the freedom on the Internet in an editorial entitled Free Speech and the Internet.

    Endorsing the recent UN rapporteur’s report, and noting heavy-handed moves like Chinese censorship,  Italy’s defamation case, data retention in Brazil,  three-strikes laws, & the United States’ dubiously legitimate domain seizures, the Times concludes:

    The U.N. has proposed sound guidelines to defend free expression: censorship of content online must be transparent and enforced only through the courts. Governments should not rely on private entities like service providers to censor content and should not hold them liable for user content. Counterterrorism should not be an excuse to bar expression, unless it is to prevent imminent threats.

    With few exceptions, governments should not adopt Internet registries that require users to reveal their identities. And defamation — so often used as a legal tool to repress political speech — should be decriminalized. Finally, nobody should be banned from the Internet. It is a fundamental tool for enabling free speech.

  • joly 3:31 am on 06/12/2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, john markoff, , , , sacha meinrath,   

    New York Times details US “Stealth Web” projects #netfreedom @SaschaMeinrath @StateDept 

    A New York Times story today – U.S. Underwrites Internet Detour Around Censors by John Markoff and James Glanz, details United States efforts to build alternative communications networks in repressive states These range from alternative cellphone systems to “Internet in a Suitcase” mesh networking. The latter project is headed by Sascha Meinrath, director of the Open Technology Initiative at the New America Foundation, and has received $2 million in funding.

    From the story:

    “We’re going to build a separate infrastructure where the technology is nearly impossible to shut down, to control, to surveil,” said Mr. Meinrath. “The implication is that this disempowers central authorities from infringing on people’s fundamental human right to communicate,” added.


    The group’s suitcase project will rely on a version of “mesh network” technology, which can transform devices like cellphones or personal computers to create an invisible wireless web without a centralized hub. In other words, a voice, picture or e-mail message could hop directly between the modified wireless devices — each one acting as a mini cell “tower” and phone — and bypass the official network.

    Mr. Meinrath said that the suitcase would include small wireless antennas, which could increase the area of coverage; a laptop to administer the system; thumb drives and CDs to spread the software to more devices and encrypt the communications; and other components like Ethernet cables.


    In addition to the Obama administration’s initiatives, there are almost a dozen independent ventures that also aim to make it possible for unskilled users to employ existing devices like laptops or smartphones to build a wireless network. One mesh network was created around Jalalabad, Afghanistan, as early as five years ago, using technology developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    Recent government internet shutdowns in the Middle East have spurred efforts.

    That need is so urgent, citizens are finding their own ways to set up rudimentary networks. Mehdi Yahyanejad, an Iranian expatriate and technology developer who co-founded a popular Persian-language Web site, estimates that nearly half the people who visit the site from inside Iran share files using Bluetooth — which is best known in the West for running wireless headsets and the like. In more closed societies, however, Bluetooth is used to discreetly beam information — a video, an electronic business card — directly from one cellphone to another.

    Mr. Yahyanejad said he and his research colleagues were also slated to receive State Department financing for a project that would modify Bluetooth so that a file containing, say, a video of a protester being beaten, could automatically jump from phone to phone within a “trusted network” of citizens. The system would be more limited than the suitcase but would only require the software modification on ordinary phones.

    By the end of 2011, the State Department will have spent some $70 million on circumvention efforts and related technologies, according to department figures.

  • joly 3:56 am on 05/26/2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , , , , , , United Nations   

    UN Human Rights Council report on freedom of expression condemns Internet controls #netfreedom @UN_HRC 

    UN Human RightsThe 17th session of the United Nations Human Rights Council takes place in Geneva from 30 May – 17 June 2011. In preparation a number of reports have been filed, including one from Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression Frank de la Rue.

    The report [pdf] “explores key trends and challenges to the right of all individuals to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds through the Internet”. It covers both content and access, and also examines what “exceptional circumstances under which the dissemination of certain types of information may be restricted”.

    The report states:

    States restrict, control, manipulate and censor content disseminated via the Internet without any legal basis, or on the basis of broad and ambiguous laws, without justifying the purpose of such actions; and/or in a manner that is clearly unnecessary and/or disproportionate to achieving the intended aim


    The Special Rapporteur is of the view that the arbitrary use of criminal law to sanction legitimate expression constitutes one of the gravest forms of restriction to the right, as it not only creates a “chilling effect”, but also leads to other human rights violations, such as arbitrary detention and torture and other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

    Noting recent cases of imprisonment of bloggers, the report suggests that defamation be decriminalized globally and that only incitements to violence can be legitimately blocked. Additionally

    the Special Rapporteur reiterates that the right to freedom of expression includes expression of views and opinions that offend, shock or disturb.

    The report criticizes heavy-handed copyright protection schemes while noting that the most recent drafts of the ACTA agreement have dropped the ‘3 strike’ disconnection provisions.

    It calls for universal access noting that a BBC global poll in March 2010 “79% of those interviewed
    in 26 countries believe that Internet access is a fundamental human right”

    The conclusions of the report are below:
    (More …)

  • joly 3:29 pm on 01/28/2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , filters,   

    Internet Society statement on Egypt @internetsociety #egypt #jan25 

    The Internet Society has issued a statement on the current situation in Egypt.

    “We are following the current events in Egypt with concern as it appears that all incoming and outgoing Internet traffic has been disrupted. The Internet Society believes that the Internet is a global medium that fundamentally supports opportunity, empowerment, knowledge, growth, and freedom and that these values should never be taken away from individuals.

    The Internet Society considers this recent action by the Egyptian government to block Internet traffic to be an inappropriate response to a political crisis. It is a very serious decision for a government to block all Internet access in its country, and a serious intrusion into its citizens’ basic rights to communicate. If the blockage continues, it will have a very detrimental impact on Egypt’s economy and society. Ultimately, the Egyptian people and nation are the ones that will suffer, while the rest of the world will be worse off with the loss of Egyptian voices on the net.

    However we are most concerned about the safety and security of the Egyptian people. Alongside the rest of the world, we share the hope for a positive and lasting solution to the problems that have risen to the surface there.

    In the longer term, we are sure that the world will learn a lesson from this very unfortunate example, and come to understand that cutting off a nation’s access to the Internet only serves to fuel dissent and does not address the underlying causes of dissatisfaction.”

  • joly 4:09 am on 12/08/2010 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship, , ,   

    Internet Society issues statement re: Wikileaks 

    ISOC logoThe Internet Society has issued a statement criticizing recent technical efforts to suppress the Wikileaks website.

    It reads as follows:

    Recently, we have witnessed the effective disappearance from the Internet of a website made infamous through international press coverage and political intrigue.

    The Internet Society is founded upon key principles of free expression and non discrimination that are essential to preserve the openness and utility of the Internet. We believe that this incident dramatically illustrates that those principles are currently at risk.

    Recognizing the content of the wikileaks.org website is the subject of concern to a variety of individuals and nations, we nevertheless believe it must be subject to the same laws and policies of availability as all Internet sites.  Free expression should not be restricted by governmental or private controls over computer hardware or software, telecommunications infrastructure, or other essential components of the Internet.

    Resilience and cooperation are built into the Internet as a design principle. The cooperation among several  organizations has ensured that the impact on the Wikileaks organizational website has not prevented all access to Wikileaks material.  This further underscores that removal of a domain is an ineffective tool to suppress communication, merely serving to undermine the integrity of the global Internet and its operation.

    Unless and until appropriate laws are brought to bear to take the wikileaks.org domain down legally, technical solutions should be sought to reestablish its proper presence, and appropriate actions taken to pursue and prosecute entities (if any) that acted maliciously to take it off the air.

    (More …)

  • joly 6:37 am on 03/12/2010 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: censorship,   

    Mar 12: World Day Against Cyber Censorship 

    Internet censorship is still a major issue in many countries worldwide. With that in mind, the Paris-based international organization Reporters without Borders (RSF) is promoting its yearly World Day Against Cyber Censorship on March 12th. On the occasion, RSF issued its latest list of “Enemies of the Internet“, where China, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam and Tunisia are among the most prominent examples of countries censoring the web.

    Reporters Without Borders will celebrate World Day Against Cyber Censorship on 12 March. This event is intended to rally everyone in support of a single Internet that is unrestricted and accessible to all. It is also meant to draw attention to the fact that, by creating new spaces for exchanging ideas and information, the Internet is a force for freedom. However, more and more governments have realised this and are reacting by trying to control the Internet.

    via Global Voices Online » Global: World Day Against Cyber Censorship.

  • joly 11:54 pm on 12/08/2009 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , censorship, , ONI, OpenNet Initiative,   

    Access Denied: The Policy of Global Internet Filtering 

    Rob Faris, the OpenNet Initiative’s Research Director and John Palfrey, one of the project’s Principal Investigators, lead a discussion of Internet filtering and provided a glimpse of the results of ONI’s first global survey of Internet censorship.

    In the last year ONI has studied forty countries and found a substantial increase in Internet censorship, colored by complex and dynamic political, legal and social processes. The research will be documented in the forthcoming MIT Press book: Access Denied: the Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering.

    The OpenNet Initiative is a partnership between the Citizen Lab at the Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, the Advanced Network Research Group at the Cambridge Security Programme at Cambridge University, and the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford.

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